Troy Carter couldn’t get Gaga’s first single “Just Dance” on pop radio, so in 2008 he put his new act on a rigorous schedule—sometimes four shows a night, playing to gay clubs or arty fashion crowds. Gaga and Carter began experimenting with Twitter and Facebook, engaging fans and pumping out homespun content on YouTube. At the time, these channels were seen as enemies to the music business, but Carter saw them as inexpensive ways to reach the masses.
As he did this, he became fascinated with how tech companies approach industries outside of their core—whether it was Amazon with data storage or Google with YouTube. “These are businesses that you can’t quite define and mean something different to different people,” he says. "I said, ‘We’re doing it totally wrong down here [in Hollywood].’"